1. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Resolution 2200A, Article 14 (Dec. 16, 1966), available at http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx.

    1. Columbia Law School Human Rights Clinic, Access to Justice: Ensuring Meaningful Access to Counsel in Civil Cases: Response to the Fourth Periodic Report of the United States to the United Nations Human Rights Committee (ICCPR Shadow Report) (Aug. 2013), published as 64 Syracuse L. Rev. 409 (2014), available at http://web.law.columbia.edu/sites/default/files/microsites/human-rights-institute/files/Access%20to%20Justice%20Shadow%20Report%20-%20Final%20%28small%20size%29.pdf.

    2. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 32 on Article 14: Right to equality before courts and tribunals and to a fair trial (2007), available at http://www.bayefsky.com/general/ccpr_gencom_32_2007.pdf.

    3. Carrie Johnson, Rights Advocates See 'Access to Justice' Gap in U.S., NPR (Mar. 10, 2014), available at


    4. Risa Kaufman, Access to Justice and the Bringing Human Rights Home Challenge, Human Rights at Home Blog (Mar. 10, 2014), available at http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/human_rights/2014/03/access-to-justice-and-the-bringing-human-rights-home-challenge.html.

    5. United States of America, Fourth Periodic Report of the United States of America to the United Nations Committee on Human Rights Concerning the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Dec. 30, 2011), available at http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/179781.htm.