Pro Se Issues

  1. Rebecca A. Albrecht, et al., Judicial Techniques for Cases Involving Self-Represented Litigants, 42 Judges' J. 16 (2003), available at

  2. Barrie Althoff, Ethics and the Law: Ethical Considerations for Lawyers and Judges When Dealing with Unrepresented Persons, Washington State Bar News (Jan. 2000), available at

  3. Deborah J. Cantrell, Justice for Interests of the Poor: The Problem of Navigating the System without Counsel, 70 Fordham L. Rev. 1573 (2002), available at

  4. Conference of State Court Administrators, Position Paper on Self-Represented Litigation (Aug. 2000), available at (search for "Self-Represented Litigation"). 

  5. Dan Conley, O. Thomas Armstrong, and Jeffrey O. Davis, with Nathan R. Mathews, Judges' Views of Pro Se Litigants' Effect on Courts, 40 Clearinghouse Rev. J. of Poverty L. and Pol'y 228 (2006).

  6. Russell Engler, And Justice for All—Including the Unrepresented Poor: Revisiting the Roles of the Judges, Mediators and Clerks, 67 Fordham L. Rev. 1987 (1999), available at

  7. Russell Engler, Out of Sight and Out of Line: The Need for Regulations of Lawyers' Negotiations with Unrepresented Poor Persons, 85 Cal. L. Rev. 79 (1997), available at

  8. Erica L. Fox, Alone in the Hallway: Challenges to Effective Self-Representation in Negotiation, 1 Harv. Negot. L. Rev. 85 (1996).

  9. Jona Goldschmidt, How are Courts Handling Pro Se Litigants? Litigation by People Who Represent Themselves is a Growing Phenomenon That Presents a Variety of Challenges to Court Staff and Judges, 82 Judicature 13 (1998).

  10. Jona Goldschmidt, The Pro Se Litigant's Struggle for Access to Justice: Meeting the Challenge of Bench and Bar Resistance, 40 Fam. Ct. Rev. 36 (2002), available at

  11. John M. Greacen & Kevin Stinson, Report on the Programs to Assist Self Represented Litigants of the State of Alaska (Oct. 11, 2004). 

  12. John M. Greacen, Resources to Assist Self-Represented Litigants; A Fifty-State Review of the "State of the "Art", Michigan State Bar Association (June 2011), available at

  13. John M. Greacen, Self Represented Litigants and Court and Legal Services Responses to Their Needs: What We Know, Center for Families, Children & the Courts, California Administrative Office of the Courts, available at (click on 'search' in the upper right hand corner and enter the report title). 

  14. Paula Hannaford-Agor & Nicole Mott, Research on Self-Represented Litigation: Preliminary Results and Methodological Considerations, Just. 24 Sys. J.163 (2003), available at

  15. Beth M. Henschen, Lessons from the Country: Serving Self-Represented Litigants in Rural Jurisdictions, American Judiciary Society (2002), available at

  16. Bonnie Rose Hough, The Future of Self-Represented Litigation: Report From the March 2005 Summit: Evaluation of Innovations Designed to Increase Access to Justice for Self-Represented Litigants at 109 (2005), available at's/FutureOfProSe.pdf.

  17. Judicial Council of California, Model Self-Help Pilot Program: A Report to the Legislature (Mar. 2005), available at Judicial Council of California, Model Self-Help Pilot Program: A Report to the Legislature (Mar. 2005), available at

  18. Judicial Services Division Administrative Office of the Courts, An Analysis of Pro Se Litigants in Washington State 1995-2000 (undated), available at

  19. Stephan Landsman, Nothing for Something? Denying Access to Legal Assistance to Those Compelled to Participate in ADR Proceedings, 37 Fordham Urb. L.J. 273 (2010), available at

  20. Kevin Lane, Is the Long Beach Self-Help Center Meeting the Family Law Needs of the Court and the Community? Institute for Court Management, Court Executive Development Program, Phase III Project (May 2004), available at

  21. Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Steering Committee on Self-Represented Litigants, Addressing the Needs of Self-Represented Litigants in Our Courts: Final Report and Recommendations (Nov. 21, 2008), available at

  22. New Hampshire Supreme Court Task Force on Self-Representation, Challenge to Justice: A Report on Self-Represented Litigants in New Hampshire Courts (Jan. 2004), available at

  23. Jessica Pearson & Lanae Davis, The Hotline Outcomes Assessment Study: Final Report - Phase III: Full-Scale Telephone Survey, Center for Policy Research (2002), available at

  24. Bruce D. Sales, Connie J. Beck, & Richard K. Haan, Is Self-Representation a Reasonable Alternative to Attorney Representation in Divorce Cases?, 37 St. Louis U. L.J. 553 (1993).

  25. Ronald W. Staudt and Paula L. Hannaford, Access to Justice for the Self-Represented Litigant: An Interdisciplinary Investigation by Designers and Lawyers, 52 Syracuse L Rev 1017 (2002),

  26. This American Life, 385: Pro Se (Nov. 12, 2009), available at

  27. Wisconsin Pro Se Working Group, Pro Se Litigation: Meeting the Challenge of Self-Represented Litigants in Wisconsin (Dec. 2000), available at

  28. Richard Zorza, Discrete Task Representation, Ethics, and the Big Picture: Toward a New Jurisprudence, 40 Fam. Ct. Rev. 19 (2002).

  29. Richard Zorza, The Disconnect Between the Requirements of Judicial Neutrality and Those of the Appearance of Neutrality When Parties Appear Pro Se: Causes, Solutions, Recommendations, and Implications, 17 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 423 (2004), available for purchase at